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ZOOLOGICAL  SERIES.  VOL.  Ill,  No.  14. 



Edmund    Heller. 


D.  G.  ELLIOT,  F.  R.  S.  E.,  ETC. 
Curator  of  Department. 

CHICAGO,  U.  S.  A. 
December,   1903. 



BY  D.  G.  ELLIOT,  F.R.S.E.,  ETC. 


FAM.    BOVID^. 

Ovis  cervina  *cremnobates.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Mattomi,  San  Pedro  Martir  Mountains,  Lower  Cali- 
fornia, Mexico. 

Geogr.  distr.-..  San  Pedro  Martir,  and  probably  the  Laguna  Moun- 
tains, Lower  California,  Mexico. 

Genl.  char.:  Resembling  the  O.  c.  nelsoni  from  Grape  Vine 
Mountains,  boundary  of  Nevada  and  Lower  California,  but  of  a  much 
lighter  color,  the  head  of  a  three-year-old  ram  being  nearly  white, 
with  a  very  small  caudal  patch  f  not  divided  from  color  of  upper  parts 

by  any  perceptible  line;  fore  part  of  legs  almost  black,  similar  to  those 
of  O.  stonii;  head  very  broad  between  orbits,  from  20  to  25  mm.  broader 
in  old  rams  than  the  head  of  O.  c.  nelsoni;  horns  tyf  old  rams  very  large 
and  curving  outward  from  the  head;  those  of  ewes  with  the  points 
diverging  widely  apart. 

*  X/n)f&oftaTJ)O — haunter  of  the  cliffs. 

t  Misled  by  a  dressed  skin  which  showed  th-i  patch  and  the  white  of  inner  side  of  thighs 
together,  1  said  in  my  previous  paper,  p.  209.  that  this  caudal  patch  was  very  large,  when  the  con- 
trary is  the  fact. 



Color:  Upper  parts  and  sides  varying  in  individuals  from  drab 
gray  or  pale  broccoli  brown  to  hair  brown;  in  some  cases  this  sheep 
appears  almost  white;  chest  and  line  along  ventral  surface  and  front 
of.  legs  black  or  brownish  black;  head  and  neck  hair  brown,  darker 
than  back  in  some  individuals;  drab-gray  in  the  old  ram;  back  part 
of  legs  and  inside  of  hind  legs,  narrow  line  in  center  of  ventral  sur- 
face, caudal  patch,  nose  around  nostrils,  and  inside  of  ears  white;  line 
across  caudal  patch  from  tail  to  darker  color  on  rump  (as  in  all  moun- 
tain sheep),  and  the  tail  brownish  black. 

Measurements — Female:  Total  length,  1450;  tail,  120;  hind  foot, 
375;  ear,  114.  Skull:  total  length,  283;  occipito-nasal  length,  226; 
Hensel,  246;  width  between  outer  edge  of  orbits,  156;  zygomatic 
width,  124;  length  of  nasals,  109;  palatal  length,  148;  length  of  upper 
tooth  row,  84;  length  of  half  of  mandible,  203;  of  lower  tooth  row,  82. 
Horns:  total  length  along  curve,  310;  circumference  at  base,  144; 
spread  at  tip,  393.  Head  of  old  ram:  total  length,  330;  width  between 
orbits,  inner  edge,  180;  circumference  of  horn  at  base,  395;  length 
along  outer  curve,  850;  spread  at  tips,  485. 

In  my  paper  on  the  Mammals  of  the  San  Pedro  Martir  Mountains, 
I  referred  the  specimens  of  mountain  sheep  obtained  by  Mr.  Heller  to  the 
O.  c.  nelsoni  with  a  doubt,  as  I  had  had  no  opportunity  to  compare  them 
with  any  examples  of  the  form  described  by  Dr.  Merriam.  By  the 
kindness  of  my  friend  D.  A.  K.  Fisher,  Assistant  Chief  of  the  Bio- 
logical Survey,  who  sent  me  a  skin  and  skull  of  an  old  ram  from  the 
Chuckawalla  Mountains,  killed  in  August,  1902,  and  referred  to  O.  c. 
nelsoni,  I  have  been  able  to  compare  the  two  forms.  In  color  this  ram 
is  quite  different  from  all  of  my  thirteen  specimens  from  the  San  Pedro 
Martir  Mountains,  being  very  much  darker,  the  animal  being  in  the 
"blue"  coat,  and  is  a  dark  brownish  drab,  with  a  very  large  and  wide 
caudal  patch,  and  the  legs  are  brownish  in  front,  and  not  black  or 
blackish;  in  fact,  more  on  the  Ovis  cervina  style,  while  these  parts  in 
San  Pedro  Martir  examples  are  more  on  that  of  the  Ovis  stonii.  I 
regret  very  much  that  I  am  unable  to  make  a  comparison  of  the  skulls 
of  the  two  large  rams,  but  the  one  from  the  San  Pedro  Martir,  at  pres- 
ent in  my  possession,  is  mounted,  and  has  been  loaned  to  me  by  Mr. 
Dupee,  of  Chicago,  who  shot  it,  and  the  measurements  of  the  head 
given  above  are  taken  over  the  skin.  The  horns  of  the  ram  are  longer 
and  heavier  than  those  of  the  Chuckawalla  Mountains  specimen,  and 
stand  out  from  the  head  more.  The  differences  between  the  new  race 
and  O.  c.  ndsoni  may  be  summed  up  as  follows:  darker  legs,  more  like 
those  of  O.  stonii,  much  smaller  caudal  patch  grading  so  imperceptibly 
into  the  color  of  the  back  as  to  leave  no  dividing  line  whatever;  the 

DECEMBER,   1903.  MAMMALS — ELLIOT.  241 

general  color  of  upper  parts  being  broccoli  or  hair  brown  instead  of  a 
pale  dingy  brown ;  the  skull  wider  between  orbits,  and  horns  some- 
what wider  apart  at  tips.  When  a  comparison  of  old  ram  skulls  can 
be  made,  other  differences  may  be  found.  Mr.  Heller's  thirteen 
examples  were  killed  during  the  latter  part  of  June  and  in  July,  and 
it  would  be  advantageous  to  have  specimens  taken  at  the  same  time  of 
year,  as  the  color  of  the  coat  changes  with  the  season  somewhat, 
although  not  to  the  same  degree  as  is  witnessed  among  the  deer.  All 
of  the  thirteen  specimens  were  females  except  one,  a  young  male,  no 
old  ram  having  been  secured.  The  horns  of  the  ewes  are  unusually 
large  for  this  sex,  and  have  a  wide  spread  at  the  tips.  The  figures 
here  given  of  the  heads  of  the  old  ram  and  ewe  (type  specimen)  show 
very  well  the  shape  and  type  of  the  horns. 




Citellus  1.  *vinnulus.    Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Keeler,  Owens  Lake,  Inyo  County,  California. 

Geogr.  distr.:  Panamint,  Coso,  and  Inyo  Mountains  to  Keeler, 
Owens  Lake,  Inyo  County,  California. 

Gen/,  char.:  Nearest  to  C.  peninsula  from  Lower  California, 
but  the  under  part  of  body  and  tail  white  instead  of  pale  yellow  in  the 
summer  pelage.  It  is  generally  darker  and  more  vinaceous  than 
C.  leucurus,  and  with  a  smaller  hind  foot;  and  not  so  dark  as  C.  I. 
cinnamomea,  and  the  hind  foot  smaller. 

Color:  Top  of  head  and  upper  parts  mixed  black  and  vinaceous, 
the  latter  hue  predominating  and  giving  the  tone  to  the  general  color; 
nape  and  between  shoulders  with  the  hairs  tipped  with  white,  giving 
to  this  part  a  gray  appearance,  lighter  than  the  other  parts;  two  rather 
broad  white  stripes  from  shoulders  to  end  of  rump;  shoulders,  top  of 
fore  legs  and  feet  to  toes,  thighs,  and  upper  surface  of  hind  legs  and 
feet  dark  vinaceous;  toes  white  on  fore  feet,  buffy  vinaceous  at  tips 
on  hind  feet;  sides  of  face  and  neck  and  entire  under  part  of  body, 
legs,  and  feet  silvery  white;  base  of  fur  plumbeous;  tail  above  like 
back  for  basal  third,  remainder  black  with  white  hairs  intermingled 
and  edged  with  white;  under  part  white  with  a  subapical  black  bar. 

Measurements:  ,  Total  length,   215;    tail  vertebrae,   66;  hind  foot, 

*  Vinnulus  —  charming. 


38.5;  ear,  12.  Skull:  total  length,  37.3;  Hensel,  30;  zygomatic 
width,  19;  interorbital  width,  10;  length  of  nasals,  10.5;  palatal 
length,  12;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  7;  length  of  mandible,  22; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  7. 

Strange  as  it  may  appear,  this  form  has  its  nearest  ally  in  C.  I. 
peninsula  from  Lower  California,  differing  from  that  race  in  the  char- 
acters given  above.  The  general  dark  coloring  and  the  vinaceous 
hind  foot  with  its  smaller  measurements  readily  serve  to  distinguish  it 
from  C.  leucurus.  The  hind  foot  of  the  type  exhibits  the  greatest 
dimension,  and  the  average  of  this  member  in  the  series  before  me 
would  be  much  less,  as  a  number  measure  only  36,  some  even  35.5 
mm.  It  seems  to  supplant  the  C.  leucurus  of  the  Mohave  Desert, 
and  is  dispersed  through  the  mountain  region  between  Keeler 
and  Death  Valley.  Keeler  examples,  like  other  mammals  from  that 
locality,  exhibit  the  deepest  colors,  and  the  race  appears  to  be  strongly 

Citellus  *chlorus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Palm  Springs,  Riverside  County,  California. 

Geogr.  distr.:  Riverside  and  San  Diego  counties,  California. 

Gen/,  char.:  Size  about  equal  to  that  of  C.  terelicaudus,  but  color 
entirely  different.  Skull  rather  stout  and  heavy;  tail  long. 

Color:  Entire  upper  parts  and  sides  olive  gray  with  a  brownish 
sheen  in  certain  lights;  upper  part  of  arms  and  thighs  olive  gray; 
entire  under  parts  grayish  white;  hands  brownish,  feet  whitish;  tail 
above,  basal  half  like  back,  slightly  more  brownish,  apical  half  black- 
ish mixed  with  brown  and  edged  with  white;  beneath  pale  brown, 
margined  very  narrowly  with  black  and  fringed  with  white;  ears  very 
small,  blackish. 

Measurements:  Type.  Total  length,  255;  tail,  100;  hind  foot,  37; 
ear,  8.  Extremes:  total  length,  230-255;  tail,  88-100;  hind  foot, 
35-37;  ear,  7-8.  Skull:  total  length,  32;  Hensel,  30;  interorbital 
width,  8;  zygomatic  width,  22;  width  of  brain  case,  18;  length  of 
nasals,  8;  palatal  length,  17;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  7;  length  of 
the  half  of  lower  mandible,  angle  to  tip  of  incisors,  24;  length  of  lower 
tooth  row,  6.5. 

This  species  of  Citellus  is  not  like  any  of  the  other  members  of 
this  particular  group.  In  the  entire  absence  of  spots  it  resembles  its 
relatives,  but  is  at  once  distinguished  from  all  others  by  its  peculiar 

*  %'t.opotT — pale. 


Citellus  *eremonomus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Furnace  Creek,  Death  Valley,  Inyo  County,  Cali- 

Genl.  char.:  Size  small;  color  a  darker  vinaceous  than  that  of  any 
other  member  of  the  unspotted  group  of  Citellus;  tail  with  only  basal 
half  like  that  of  the  upper  parts.  Skull  similar  to  that  of  C.  moha- 
vensis,  but  processes  of  the  pterygoids  do  not  touch  the  bu-llae. 

Color:  Upper  parts  grizzled  vinaceous  cinnamon;  sides  of  face, 
nose,  and  body,  inner  sides  of  legs,  and  entire  under  parts,  silvery 
white;  fore  feet  pale  brown,  hind  feet  whitish;  tail  above,  basal  half 
grizzled  vinaceous  cinnamon  like  the  back,  terminal  half  blackish 
mixed  with  white  hairs,  and  narrowly  edged  with  white,  under  part 
silvery  white  at  base,  remainder  buff  mixed  with  black,  bordered  and 
tipped  with  black,  and  narrowly  fringed  with  white.  Ears  very  small, 
similar  in  color  to  the  back. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  252;  tail  vertebrae,  89;  hind  foot, 
35;  ear,  8.5.  Skull:  total  length,  36;  occipito-nasal  length,  35; 
Hensel,  30;  zygomatic  width,  23;  interorbital  constriction,  9.5; 
palatal  length,  17;  length  of  nasals,  12;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  7; 
length  of  mandible,  angle  to  tips  of  incisors,  25 ;  length  of  lower  tooth 
row,  7. 

This  form  in  its  coloring  is  quite  different  from  any  of  those 
described  belonging  to  this  particular  group,  and  its  peculiar  vina- 
ceous cinnamon  color  with  the  plumbeous  bases  of  the  hairs  showing 
through  at  intervals  gives  it  a  somewhat  scaly,  harsh  appearance,  more 
like  the  members  of  the  harrisi  group,  but  without  any  stripe.  It  was 
not  common  in  the  locality  in  which  it  was  taken,  for  Mr.  Heller,  who 
collected  the  specimens,  was  able  to  secure  only  three  individuals. 

FAM.    MURID^l. 

Onychomys  pulcher.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Morongo  Pass,  San  Bernardino  Mountains,  California. 

Genl.  char.:  Color  pale,  size  medium. 

Color:  Upper  parts  buff,  inclining  to  pinkish,  darker  on  rump, 
where  the  tint  becomes  almost  a  salmon  buff;  nose,  sides  of  face,  lips, 
entire  under  parts,  legs,  and  feet,  pure  white;  tail  above  soiled  white, 
sides  and  under  parts  white;  ears  whitish  at  base,  in  life  probably 

*  spyftovofjLOff — living  in  a  desert. 


flesh  color,  apical  half  brownish  black ;  a  tuft  of  whitish  hairs  covers 
the  base  of  ear.  Orbital  ring  black. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  150;  tail  vertebrae,  55;  hind  foot, 
21 ;  ear,  18.5.  Skull:  total  length,  25.5;  Hensel,  20;  zygomatic 
width,  13.5;  interorbital  constriction,  5;  length  of  nasals,  9;  palatal 
length,  10 ;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  4;  length  of  mandible,  15; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  4. 

This  is  a  pale  Onychomys,  not  exactly  resembling  any  other  species. 
It  is  about  the  size  of  O,  macrotis  from  Lower  California,  but  quite 
different  in  color.  It  is  a  desert  form  as  well  as  a  mountain-dweller, 
and  ranges  from  the  Morongo  Pass  through  the  Mohave  Desert  to 
Lone  Pine,  and  is  also  found  on  the  Coso  Range.  It  is  a  very  pretty 
species,  with  its  peculiar  pinkish  and  salmon  buff  coloring. 

Peromyscus  *petraius.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Lone  Pine,  Inyo  County,  California. 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  P.  auripectus,  but  paler;  tail  much  darker, 
foot  smaller,  no  pectoral  spot. 

Color:  Head  and  uppef  parts  ochraceous  buff  lined  with  black ; 
side  paler;  lips,  face  beneath  eyes,  lower  part  of  flanks,  hands,  ahd 
feet  white;  base  of  fur  plumbeous;  tail  hairy,  dusky  or  blackish 
above,  beneath  whitish;  ears  brownish  black,  base  covered  by  a  tuft 
of  ochraceous  buff  hairs. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  177;  tail  vertebrae,  98;  hind  foot, 
20.5;  ear,  20.  Skull:  total  length,  24;  Hensel,  18;  zygomatic  width, 
12;  interorbital  constriction,  4;  palatallength,  9;  greatest  width  of 
brain  case,  7;  length  of  upper  molar  series,  3;  length  of  mandible, 
angle  to  tips  of  incisors,  13;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  3. 

This  mouse  is  allied  to  P.  auripectus,  Allen,  but  can  be  readily 
distinguished  from  that  species  by  its  paler  coloration,  darker  tail,  and 
smaller  foot,  the  average  length  of  this  member  in  fifteen  examples 
being  20.1. 

Peromyscus  parasiticus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Lone  Pine,  Inyo  County,  California. 

Genl.  char.:  similar  to  P.  r.  pinalis,  but  larger  in  all  of  its  dimen- 
sions. •  Skull  with  larger  rostrum,  longer  nasals,  broader  between 
orbits,  and  larger,  differently  shaped  brain-case. 

Color:  Top  of  head  and  dorsal  region  dusky  cinnamon,  becoming 

*  TtSTpatoff — frequenting  rocks. 


pale  cinnamon  on  sides  of  face  beneath  eyes;  shoulders,  flanks,  and 
sides  of  rump,  lips,  sides  of  nose,  lower  part  of  flanks,  thighs,  hands 
and  feet,  and  entire  under  parts  white;  base  of  fur  plumbeous;  tail 
above  dusky,  beneath  yellowish  white. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  214;  tail  vertebrae,  119';  hind  foot,  . 
23.5;  ear  20.5.  Skull:  total  length,  28;  Hensel,  19;  zygomatic 
width,  13;  interorbital  constriction,  4.5;  width  of  brain-case,  12.5; 
length  of  brain-case,  14;  palatal  length,  u;  length  of  nasals,  u; 
length  of  upper  tooth  row,  4;  length  of  mandible,  angle  to  tip  of  incis- 
ors, 16;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  4. 

With  a  coloring  very  like  that  of  P.  r.  pinalis,  the  great  difference 
in  size  of  skull  and  shape  of  brain-case,  together  with  the  geographical 
distribution,  shows  that  the  two  animals  represent  forms  that  are  quite 
separate  from  each  other.  These  specimens  were  taken  at  the  base 
of  the  mountains  at  about  4,000  feet  elevation,  and  no  individuals 
were  seen  either  in  the  high  mountains  or  on  the  desert.  It  would 
appear  to  be  local  in  its  habitat.  In  a  certain  way,  according  to  Mr. 
Heller,  it  is  something  of  a  parasite,  frequenting  and  taking  posses- 
sion, when  possible,  of  the  nest  of  the  wood  rats  (Neotoma)  dwelling 
in  the  same  region.  It  is  on  account  of  this  trait  in  its  character  that 
I  have  given  it  the  above  specific  name. 

Peromyscus  *metallicola.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Providentia  Mines,  Northwestern  Sonora,   Mexico. 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  P.  eremicus,  but  tail  hairy  and  with  a 
pencil;  sides  deep  orange  buff,  instead  of  pale  fulvous. 

Color:  Upper  parts  mixed  black  and  orange  buff;  forehead  and 
nose  gray  and  buff  mixed:  sides  of  face,  shoulders,  sides,  and  rump 
about  base  of  tail  deep  orange  buff;  orbital  ring  black;  lips  and  entire 
under  parts,  hands,  and  feet  pure  white;  tail  above  dusky,  sides 
beneath  white;  ears  brown. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  190.5;  tail  vertebrae,  101.6;  hind 
foot,  25.  Skull:  occipito-nasal  length,  26;  Hensel,  20;  zygomatic 
width,  13;  interorbital  constriction,  4.5;  width  of  brain-case,  12; 
length  of  nasals,  10;  palatal  length,,  10.5;  length  of  upper  tooth  row, 
4;  length  of  mandible,  angle  to  alveolus  of  incisor,  10;  length  of  lower 
tooth  row,  4. 

This  mouse,  with  a  general  resemblance  to  P.  eremicus,  is  strik- 
ingly different  in  having  the  tail  thickly  covered  with  hair  and  a  pencil 
at  the  tip,  while  the  tail  of  the  species  compared  is  naked.  The  buff 

*  Metallicola,  a  dweller  in  a  mine. 


colors  are  much  brighter  and  deeper,  altogether  of  an  orange  instead 
of  a  pale  fulvous  hue.  A  series  was  procured  at  the  type  locality  by 
Mr.  J.  Rowley. 

Rhithrodontomys  catalinae.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Saint  Catalina  Island,  Santa  Barbara  Islands,  Cali- 

Gen/,  char.:  Similar  to  R.  longicauda,  but  larger;  hind  foot  very 
much  larger. 

Color:  Top  of  head  and  dorsal  region  brownish  black  or  buff 
mixed,  black  predominating;  sides  cream  buff;  indistinct  cream  buff 
lateral  line;  under  parts,  hands,  and  feet  white,  plumbeous  of  under 
fur  showing  through  on  under  parts;  large  cream  buff  spot  on  breast; 
tail  above  blackish,  beneath  soiled  white;  ears  brown. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  155.7;  tail  vertebrae,  83.8;  hind  foot, 


While  resembling  in  its  coloring  the  well-known  R.  longicaudus 
from  the  coast  region  of  California,  the  present  form  is  characterized 
by  its  larger  size,  as  shown  in  all  the  measurements,  the  length  of  the 
hind  foot  being  especially  noticeable. 

Neotoma  fuscipes  mohavensis.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Ore  Grande,  Mohave  Desert,  Kern  County,  Cali- 
fornia. . 

Genl.  char. :  Smaller  than  JV.  f.  macrotis,  more  grayish  in  color, 
and  with  a  smaller  foot. 

Color:  Upper  parts  dark  drab  gray,  darkest  on  top  of  the  head 
and  on  the  dorsal  line;  sides  paler,  inclined  to  buffy;  fore  legs  buffy 
gray;  thighs  dark  gray  or  light  plumbeous;  chin,  throat,  inner  side  of 
fore  legs  and  thighs,  and  ventral  region  with  the  lower  part  of  thighs, 
hands  and  feet  white;  hairs  on  sides  plumbeous  at  base,  all  the  others 
on  under  parts  white  to  the  roots;  tail  above  blackish  brown,  beneath 
whitish  brown,  line  of  demarcation  very  distinct;  ears  naked,  dark 

Measurements:  Total  length,  384;  tail  vertebrae,  173;  hind  foot, 
40;  ear  from  notch,  31.  Skull:  occipito-nasal  length,  47;  Hensel, 
39  J  zygomatic  width,  24;  interorbital  constriction,  5  ;  length  of  nasals, 
16;  palatal  length,  21;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  9;  length  of  man- 
dible, angle  to  tips  of  incisors,  31;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  8. 


This  desert  rat  is  noticeable  for  its  gray  color,  with  hardly  any 
red  showing,  so  often  conspicuous  in  its  relative  N.  f.  macrotis.  It 
would  seem  to  be  the  desert  representative  of  that  race.  Mr.  Heller 
found  it  only  at  .the  type  locality  where  seven  specimens  were  taken, 
and  the  extent  of  its  distribution  has  not  been  ascertained. 

Neotoma  desertorum  grandis.    Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Cameron  Lake,  Sierra  Nevada,  Kern  County,  Cali- 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  N.  desertorum,  but  larger;  tail  more  hairy 
and  blacker  above. 

Color:  Upper  parts  mixed  buff  and  black;  sides  and  thighs  brighter 
buff  with  less  black;  nose  and  sides  of  face  buff;  under  parts  and  feet 
white;  under  fur  along  sides  and  thighs  plumbeous;  hairs  on  throat, 
chest,  and  middle  of  ventral  surface  white  to  the  roots;  tail  very  hairy, 
black  above,  white  beneath;  ears  pale  brown,  tuft  of  buff  hairs  at  base 
succeeded  by  a  band  of  black  hairs  near  middle  of  ear. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  385;  tail,  185;  hind  foot,  38;  ear, 
30.  Skull:  total  length,  47;  Hensel,  40;  zygomatic  width,  23;  inter- 
orbital  constriction,  6;  length  of  nasals,  17;  palatal  length,  21;  length 
of  upper  tooth  row,  8;  length  of  mandible,  angle  to  tip  of  incisors, 
30;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  9. 

This  is  a  large  rat,  equaling  in  size  N.  f.  streatori,  but  with  the 
coloring  of  N.  desertorum,  and  a  larger  hind  foot  than  that  species;  in 
fact,  the  two  specimens  from  Cameron  Lake  are  exactly  alike  in 
appearance  with  topotypes  from  Furnace  Creek,  Death  Valley,  except 
the  black  tail,  but  the  gfeat  size  at  once  separates  them  from  the 
longer  known  species.  The  skull,  save  in  its  greater  dimensions, 
offers  no  particular  differences  from  that  of  N.  desertorum. 


Teonoma  cinerea  *acraia.    Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Hot  Springs,  Long  Canon,  Mount  Whitney,  Inyo 
County,  California.  Altitude  8,000  feet. 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  T.  cinerea,  but  much  paler,  tail  paler,  foot 

Color:  Upper  parts  pinkish  buff  lined  with  black  on  top  of  head  and 
dorsal  region,  lightest  on  rump;  sides  of  face  and  flanks  pinkish  buff 
with  very  little  black  showing;  this  color  extending  over  shoulders 

*  axpatoff — dwelling  on  the  hills. 


and  thighs;  orbital  ring  black;  entire  under  parts,  hands,  and  feet 
white;  base  of  fur  on  sides  only,  plumbeous;  tail  above  like  back, 
slightly  darker  towards  tip,  beneath  yellowish  white;  ears  naked,  dark 
brown;  soles  of  feet  naked. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  360;  tail  vertebrae,  150;  hind  foot, 
40;  ear,  33.5.  Skull:  total  length,  45.5;  Hensel,  40;  zygomatic 
width,  25;  interorbital  constriction,  6;  width  of  brain-case  above 
roots  of  zygomata,  19;  palatal  length,  palatal  arch  to  alveolus  of 
incisor,  22;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  alveolar  border,  9;  length  of 
mandible,  angle  to  tips  of  incisors,  31;  length  of  lower  tooth  row, 
alveolar  border,  9. 

This  wood  rat  is  of  a  very  much  paler  color  than  T.  cinerea,  the  tail 
being  especially  noticeable  for  its  light  hue  when  placed  among  speci- 
mens of  the  typical  form.  The  skull  presents  no  differences  worthy  of 
remark.  This  rat  was  procured  by  Mr.  Heller  at  high  elevations, 
8,000-11,000  feet  on  Mt.  Whitney,  and  on  the  Inyo  Mountains,  the 
higher  range  being  on  the  last  named,  where  it  was  more  numerous  at 
timber  line. 



Thomomys  *scapterus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Hannopec  Cafton,  Panamint  Mountains,  Inyo  County, 

Geogr.  distr.:  Panamint,  Inyo  and  Coso  mountains,  Inyo  County, 

Gen/,  char.:  Similar  to  T.  operarius,  but  much  darker  in  color, 
and  with  much  shorter  nasals. 

Color:  Upper  parts  and  side  wood  brown,  heavily  lined  with  black 
on  top  of  head  and  dorsal  region,  in  some  specimens  nearly  forming  a 
dorsal  band,  but  in  the  type  this  part  is  more  uniform  with  the  side, 
'the  back  being  less  heavily  lined  with  black;  lower  sides  and  entire 
under  parts  white,  the  plumbeous  under  fur  showing  through;  hands 
and  feet  whitish;  tail  unicolor,  white;  ears  and  small  spot  behind  ear 

Measurements:  Total  length,  229;  tail  vertebrae,  74;  hind  foot,  29; 
ear,  6.  Skull:  total  length,  37;  Hensel,  33;  zygomatic  width,  23; 
interorbital  constriction,  6;  greatest  width  of  brain  case,  9;  palatal 

*  sxanrqp — a  digger. 


length,  33;  length  of  nasals  (median),  10;  anterior  width  of  nasals,  5; 
length  of  mandible,  angle  to  alveoli  of  incisors,  24. 

This  gopher  is  distributed  along  the  bases  of  the  mountain  ranges 
named  above,  but  does  not  go  out  on  to  the  desert,  nor  west  of  the 
Inyo  Mountains.  Its  dark  coloring  will  distinguish  it  at  all  times  from 
T.  operarius,  which  seems  to  be  its  nearest  relative. 


Dipodomys  deserti  helleri.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Keeler,  Owens  Lake,  Inyo  County,  California. 

Genl.  char. :  Size  similar  to  that  of  D.  deserti,  color  pale  ochra- 
ceous  instead  of  pale  yellowish  brown ;  upper  part  of  tail  like  back 
with  no  black  markings,  no  black  on  face. 

Color:  Upper  parts  pale  ochraceous  or  dark  pinkish  buff;  of  a 
similar  tint,  but  not  so  dark  as  are  the  upper  parts  of  D.  nitratus;  line 
over  eyes,  sides  of  nose  and  forepart  of  face,  entire  under  parts,  limbs, 
and  feet  pure  white;  tail  with  line  above  pale  ochraceous  like  back, 
becoming  ochraceous  near  tip,  sides  and  under  part  and  tip  pure 
white;  ear  same  color  as  back. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  333;  tail  195;  hind  foot,  53^5;  ear, 
16.  Skull:  total  length,  43;  Hensel,  37;  zygomatic  width,  21;  width 
of  mastoids,  29;  greatest  width  of  parietals,  20;  length  of  nasals,  14; 
palatal  length,  14;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  5;  length  of  mandible, 
condyle  to  tip  of  incisors,  21 ;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  5. 

A  series  of  this  form  from  Keeler,  collected  by  Mr.  Heller,  pre- 
sents the  same  differences  from  typical  D.  deserti  as  D.  nitratus  from 
the  same  locality  does  from  D.  m.  simiolus.  It  is  much  redder,  lacks 
entirely  the  pale  yellowish  brown  hue  of  D.  deserti,  and  has  no  black  or 
dusky  hue  upon  the  tail.  I  have  much  pleasure  in  naming  this  well- 
marked  race  after  Mr.  E.  Heller,  whose  work  in  the  field  has  con- 
tributed so  greatly  to  the  enlargement  of  the  mammal  collections  of 
this  Institution. 

Dipodomys  m.  *arenivagus.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  San  Felipe,  Lower  California,  Mexico. 

Genl.  char.:  Size  small;  similar  to  D.  m.  simiolus,  but  paler;  ear 

•Arena,  sand;  vagor.  to  wander. 


larger,  hind  foot  shorter;  skull  narrower  across  mastoids  and  parietals; 
nasals  shorter. 

Color:  Upper  parts  pinkish  buff,  palest  on  the  head  and  darkest 
on  rump,  the  plumbeous  under  fur  showing  in  places;  no  black  streaks 
on  face;  white  spots  behind  ears  and  above  eyes;  upper  parts  of  sides 
from  eye  to  rump,  like  color  of  rump;  nose,  sides  of  face,  lower  part 
of  flanks,  entire  under  parts  and  limbs,  pure  white;  a  narrow  line  of 
pinkish  buff  across  thighs;  hands  yellowish  white,  feet  white;  tail  with 
a  bushy  pencil,  the  upper  parts  to  tip  pale  drab,  sides  and  beneath 
white;  ears  naked,  yellowish. 

Measurements:  Type.  Total  length,  225;  tail  vertebras,  134;  hind 
foot,  36;  ear,  15.  Average  of  ten  specimens:  total  length,  234.7; 
tail,  137.3;  hind  foot,  36.7;  ear,  14.1.  Skull:  total  length,  posterior 
line  of  mastoids  to  anterior  end  of  nasals,  34;  Hensel,  20;  zygomatic 
width,  15 ;  width  of  mastoids,  22 ;  greatest  width  of  parietals,  15  ;  length 
of  nasals,  12;  greatest  width  of  rostrum,  5;  palatal  length,  n;  length 
of  upper  tooth  row,  3 ;  length  of  mandible,  condyle  to  tip  of  incisors, 
16;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  3. 

In  my  paper  on  the  Mammals  of  the  San  Pedro  Martir  Mountains 
(Field  Museum  Publication,  Vol. III.,  p.  220),  I  referred  the  ten  speci- 
mens of  Dipodomys  from  San  Felipe  and  Canon  Esperanza  to  D.  m. 
simiolus.  Since  that  paper  was  issued,  I  have  received  from  Mr.  E. 
Heller,  series  of  Dipodomys  from  Palm  Springs  (Agua  Caliente),  and 
Whitewater,  type  localities  of  D.  m.  simiolus  and  D.  m.  similis  respect- 
ively. On  comparing  the  Lower  California  examples  with  these,  it  is 
at  once  seen  that  the  Mexican  animal  is  lighter  and  more  pink  in  color, 
very  much  smaller  in  all  its  measurements,  and  is  without  the  dark 
streak  on  the  lower  side  of  the  tail.  These  ten  specimens  represent  a 
well-marked  diminutive  race  of  D.  merriami,  nearest  allied  to  D.  m. 

Dipodomys  merriami  mortivallis.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Furnace  Creek,  Death  Valley,  Inyo  County,  Cali- 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  D.  m.  simiolus,  but  the  dorsal  and 
ventral  stripes  and  pencil  of  the  tail  vary  from  a  purplish  drab  to  a 
pale  russet,  quite  different  from  the  blackish  tail  of  D.  m.  simiolus. 
The  general  color  of  the  upper  parts  of  the  body  is  darker  than  that 
of  the  sub-species  just  named.  The  skulls  of  the  two  forms  are  much 
alike,  save  the  new  race  has  much  longer  and  broader  nasals  widening 
at  the  anterior  end;  the  extreme  width  of  the  parietals  is  greater,  and 
the  mastoids  are  broader. 


Color:  Type  $.  Above  russet,  darkest  on  the  rump,  the  plumbe- 
ous under  fur  showing  occasionally  in  places;  sides  dark  russet;  spots 
behind  ear,  superciliary  stripe,  face  in  front  of  eye,  nose,  entire  under 
parts,  stripe  across  thigh,  and  feet  pure  white;  inner  side  of  thighs 
deep  russet  like  the  rump;  black  bar  across  rump;  tail  bushy  on  apical 
third,  with  dorsal  and  ventral  stripe  pale  russet;  sides  white;  ears 
russet.  Other  specimens  from  Furnace  Creek  have  the  tail  a  purplish 
drab  on  the  dorsal  and  ventral  stripes,  and  also  the  bushy  portion  or 
pencil ;  but  all  the  examples  have  the  broad,  long  nasals  and  other 
characters  of  the  skull  mentioned  above. 

Measurements:  Type,  total  length,  240;  tail,  142;  hind  foot  37.5 ; 
ear,  14.  Extremes:  total  length,  240-260;  tail,  142-160;  hind  foot, 
37.5-40;  ear,  12-15.  Skull:  total  length,  anterior  end  of  nasals  to 
outer  margin  of  mastoid,  36;  Hensel,  22;  greatest  width  across  mas- 
toids,  22;  least  interorbital  width,  13;  width  of  interparietal  at  mas- 
toids,  17;  length  of  nasals,  13;  posterior  width,  2;  anterior  width,  3; 
length  of  upper  tooth  row,  3.5;  height  at  coronoid  process  from 
angle,  6. 

This  Kangaroo  rat  is  probably  nearest  to  D.  m.  simiolus,  but  is  of 
a  deeper  color,  and  has  a  differently  colored  tail  and  much  longer 
nasals.  It  appears  to  be  restricted  to  the  Death  Valley  region. 

Perognathus  *mesembrinus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Palm  Springs. 

Gen/,  char.:  Color  pale;  tail  hairy;  pencil  large,  bushy;  size 

Color:  Upper  parts  mixed  drab  gray  [and  buff;  no  lateral  line; 
thighs  like  back ;  lips,  entire  under  parts,  fore  legs,  fore  and  hind  feet 
white;  tail  above  and  pencil  brownish  drab,  beneath  whitish;  ears 
dark  brown,  bases  covered  with  tufts  of  drab  gray. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  195;  tail  vertebrae,  114;  hind  foot, 
23;  ear,  n.  Skull:  total  length,  21;  Hensel,  18;  zygomatic  width, 
13;  interorbital  constriction,  7;  mastoid  width,  14;  greatest  parietal 
width,  10.5;  length  of  mastoids,  9:  palatal  length,  10;  length  of 
nasals,  9.4;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  4;  length  of  mandible,  12.5; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  3.5. 

This  is  a  small  pale  desert  form  nearest  allied  probably  to  P. 
formosus  from  Death  Valley.  The  skull,  while  considerably  shorter 
than  that  of  the  species  just  named,  is  equally  broad,  and  with  the 

*  fieffefJLjSpwoff — South  or  southern,  southern  representative  of  P.  formosus. 


same  large  mastoids.  Like  P.  formosus  it  is  also  on  the  borderland 
ot  Perognathus  and  Chatodipus,  the  mastoids  protruding  beyond  the 
occiput  just  enough  to  retain  it  in  Perognathus.  Of  the  two  forms, 
however,  the  present  one  has  the  mastoids  projecting  the  farthest 
beyond  the  occiput,  and  the  bullse  in  both  are  large  and  widely  sepa- 
rated anteriorly.  A  series  of  the  new  species  was  obtained  at  Palm 
Springs,  which  would  seem  to  be  its  northern  limit,  but  it  evidently 
goes  into  Lower  California;  for  one  specimen  from  Mattomi  on  the 
edge  of  the  desert,  collected  by  Mr.  Heller,  and  which  in  my  paper 
on  the  San  Pedro  Martir  mammals,  I  had  referred  to  P.fallax,  proved, 
on  comparison,  to  belong  to  this  species. 

Perognathus  *elibatus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Mount  Pinos,  Los  Angeles  County,  California,  alti- 
tude 5,000  feet. 

Genl.  char. :  Size  small ;  color  dark ;  tail  long. 

Color:  Upper  parts  black  and  buff,  the  former  color  predominat- 
ing; nose,  sides  of  face,  line  over  eye,  and  lateral  line  cream  buff; 
under  parts,  hands,  and  feet  white;  tail,  basal  half  above  buff  tinged 
with  dusky,  remainder  dusky,  beneath  yellowish  white ;  ears  brown, 
white  spot  on  each  side  of  margin  near  notch;  whiskers  black;  line  on 
side  of  nose  black. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  146;  tail,  77;  hind  foot,  20.5;  ear,  7. 
Skull:  total  length,  22;  Hensel,  15;  zygomatic  width,  n;  interorbital 
constriction,  5;  mastoid  width,  12;  greatest  width  of  parietals,  9; 
length  of  nasals,  7;  palatal  length,  8;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  3; 
length  of  mandible,  angle  to  end  of  incisors,  n  ;  length  of -lower  tooth 
row,  3. 

This  is  a  very  distinct  species  of  Perognathus,  belonging  to  the 
Panamintinus  group,  but  very  much  darker  in  color  than  any  other 
form,  being  almost  black  on  the  upper  parts.  Mr.  Heller  obtained  a 
series  in  a  valley  on  Mount  Pinos  at  an  elevation  of  5,000  feet,  the 
only  place  in  which  the  species  was  found.  It  dwells  among  the  pines, 
evidently  only  at  high  elevations. 

Perognathus  fpericalles.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Keeler,  Owens  Lake,  Inyo  County,  California. 
Genl.  char. :  Size  small ;  colors  very  pale ;  ear  rather  large. 
.     Color:  Entire  upper  parts  deep  cream  buff  tinged  with  reddish, 
— high  mountains. 
— very  beautiful. 


darkest  on  head  and  rump;  sides  paler  cream  buff ;  upper  lip  and  entire 
under  parts  white;  feet  buffy  white;  tail  above  pale  brown,  beneath 
yellowish  white;  ear  pale  brown,  with  a  buffy  tuft  of  hair  at  base. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  130;  tail  vertebrae,  73;  hind  foot, 
19;  ear,  6.5.  Skull:  total  length,  21.5;  Hensel,  14.5;  zygomatic 
width,  ii ;  interorbital  width,  5;  mastoid  width,  12;  greatest  width  of 
parietals,  10;  length  of  interparietal,  2.5;  length  of  nasals,  8.4;  pala- 
tal length,  7.5;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  4;  length  of  mandible, 
angle  to  tips  of  incisors,  16.5;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  3. 

This  is  a  very  beautiful  little  species  with  the  rich  coloring  so 
prevalent  in  the  mammals  from  Keeler.  It  is  not  unlike  the  rich  hues 
of  the  species  of  Dipodomys  from  the  same  locality,  and  also  of  that 
which  I  consider  the  summer  pelage  of  P.  stephensi  from  Death 
Valley.  This  new  sp*ecies  must  be  very  rare,  as  Mr.  Heller  was  able 
to  procure  only  two  examples. 

Perognathus  hispidus  maximus.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Noble,  Oklahoma  Territory. 

Gen/,  char.:  Similar  to  P.  h.  paradoxus,  but  brighter  in  color; 
hind  foot  and  other  dimensions  larger.  Skull  longer,  parietals  wider; 
interparietal  longer;  mastoids  wider. 

Color:  Upper  parts  mixed  ochraceous  and  black,  the  latter  color 
predominating;  lateral  line  from  nose  to  rump  including  shoulder  and 
upper  part  of  fore  and  hind  legs  very  bright  ochraceous  buff;  face  and 
orbital  region  bright  ochraceous  buff,  lightly  lined  with  black;  under 
parts,  hands,  and  feet  white;  tail  above  blackish  brown,  sides  buff, 
beneath  white;  ear  buff  on  outside,  dusky  inside., 

Measurements:  Total  length,  243^  tail  vertebrae,  no;  hind  foot, 
29.  Average  of  five  specimens:  total  length,  232;  tail  vertebrae, 
109.4;  hind  foot,  27.8.  Skull:  total  length,  34;  Hensel,  25;  zygomatic 
width,  16.5;  mastoid  width,  16;  length  of  parietal,  5;  greatest  width 
of  parietals,  14;  length  of  nasals,  10.5;  palatal  length,  14;  length  of 
upper  tooth  row,  5;  length  of  mandible,  angle  to  tip  of  incisors,  20; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  4. 

While  resembling  P.  h.  paradoxus,  the  present  race  is  easily  dis- 
tinguished from  that  form  by  its  bright  colors  and  greater  size,  the 
latter  indeed  making  it  quite  conspicuous  when  compared  with  its 
nearest  relatives.  A  series  of  these  was  obtained  by  Mr.  Surber  in 
Oklahoma  Territory,  which  were  referred  in  my  paper  (Pub.  Field 
Columb.  Mus. ,  1899,  I.,  p.  300)  to  P.  h.  paradoxus,  from  which  it 
seems  entitled  to  be  separated  as  a  distinct  race. 




Lepus*  laticinctus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Ore  Grande,  Mohave  Desert,  Kern  County,  Cali- 

Genl.  char.:  Desert  form,  much  paler  than  either  L.  auduboni 
or  L.  a.  sanctidiegi,  with  a  much  paler  nape,  a  dark  band  across  thighs, 
and  soles  of  feet  bistre,  and  the  nasals  shorter  on  the  median  line. 

Color:  Upper  part  of  head  and  dorsal  region  pinkish  buff,  the 
black  bases  of  the  hairs  showing,  giving  these  parts  a  streaked  appear- 
ance of  black  and  pinkish  buff;  nape  pale  taWhy  ochraceous;  rump 
french  gray  (No.  10  of  Ridgway,  plate  II),  darkest  in  the  middle; 
sides  cream  buff;  broad  band  in  front  of  thighs  like  dorsal  region; 
sides  of  head  mixed  buff  and  black;  orbital  ring  pale  buff;  pectoral 
band  buff;  lips,  throat,  and  rest  of  under  parts,  under  parts  of  fore 
legs,  and  upper  part  of  hind  legs  and  feet  white,  with  some  white  on  fore 
feet  about  toes;  soles  of  all  feet  bistre;  tail  above  blackish,  the  hairs 
tipped  with  buff;  beneath  white;  ears  externally  mixed  buff  and  black, 
with  the  edges  white,  internally  lead  color,  nearly  naked. 

Measurements:  Tolal  length,  395;  tail  vertebrae,  62;  hind  foot, 
88;  ear,  79.  Skull:  total  length,  70;  Hensel,  53;  interorbital  width, 
19;  median  length  of  nasals,  20;  lateral  length  of  nasals,  29;  posterior 
width  of  nasals,  14;  anterior  width  of  nasals,  9;  palatal  length,  25; 
length  of  upper  tooth  row,  1 1 ;  length  of  mandible,  angle  to  tips  of 
incisors,  54;  length  of  lower  tooth  row,  alveolar  border,  13. 

This  appears  to  be  a  very  distinct  form,  quite  different  in  colora- 
tion from  any  described,  and  is  easily  recognizable  by  its  pale  hue  and 
the  bands  in  front  of  thighs  and  the  dark  soles  of  the  feet.  It  was 
procured  only  at  one  locality  by  Mr.  Heller,  Ore  Grande,  where  a 
small  series  was  obtained. 

Lepus  1.  rufipes.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Furnace  Creek,  Death  Valley,  Inyo  County,  Cali- 
fornia. « 

Genl,  char.:  Similar  to  L.  laticinctus^  but  paler  and  smaller;  soles 
of  feet  russet;  ear  shorter. 

Color:  Upper  parts  buffy  white ;  the  base  of  fur  lead  color,  then 

*  Latus,  broad— cinctus  a  band. 


pale  brown  and  hairs  tipped  with  white,  which  gives  the  general  hue  to 
the  upper  parts;  nape  buff,  darkest  on  lower  part;  top  of  head  like 
back;  sides  grayish  white;  faint  brown  stripes  in  front  of  thighs;  rump 
pale  gray ;  upper  part  of  fore  legs,  lower  part  of  shoulders  and  thighs, 
and  soles  of  feet,  russet;  pectoral  band  pale  buff;  entire  under  parts 
and  upper  surface  of  hind  feet  white,  base  of  fur  plumbeous;  ears 
mixed  buff  and  black,  edges  white;  tail  above  similar  to  rump,  beneath 

Measurements:  Total  length,  355;  tail  vertebrae,  59;  hind  foot, 
85;  ear,  74.  Skull:  total  length,  66;  Hensel,  50;  zygomatic  width, 
32;  interorbital  width,  16;  median  length  of  nasals,  15;  lateral  length 
of  nasals,  25 ;  anterior  width  of  nasals,  7 ;  posterior  width  of  nasals, 
12;  palatal  length,  24;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  11.5;  length  of 
lower  tooth  row,  10. 

This  race  while  having  a  general  resemblance  to  L.  laticinctus  from 
the  Mohave  Desert,  can  be  recognized  at  once  by  the  reddish  hue  of 
the  soles  of  the  feet  and  upper  part  of  fore  legs.  It  is  also  consider- 
ably smaller.  The  race  seems  to  be  restricted  to  Death  Valley,  as 
the  rabbit  of  the  Panamints  and  neighboring  ranges  apparently  rep- 
resents a  different  race. 

Lepus  1.  *perplicatus.     Subsp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Hannopec  Canon,  Panamint  Mountains,  Inyo 
County,  southeastern  California. 

Geogr.  distr.:  Panamint,  Coso  and  Inyo  mountains,  Inyo  County, 
California.  Altitude  7,500  feet. 

Genl.  char.-:  Similar  to  L.  laticinctus  and  L.  I,  rufipes,  but  smaller 
than  the  former  and  larger  than  the  latter,  with  the  soles  of  the  feet 
Prout's  brown.  Ear  shorter  in  proportion  to  other  dimensions. 

Color:  Upper  parts  similar  to  those  of  L.  laticinctus;  rump  dark 
gray  with  the  hairs  tipped  with  white;  upper  part  of  fore  legs  vina- 
ceous  cinnamon;  soles  of  feet  Prout's  brown;  pectoral  band  dark 
buff;  throat  whitish  plumbeous;  rest  of  under  parts  white. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  380;  tail  vertebrae,  69;  hind  foot,  98; 
ear,  73.  Skull:  total  length,  64.5;  Hensel,  49;  zygomatic  width,  33; 
interorbital  width,  16;  median  length  of  nasals,  17;  lateral  length  of 
nasals,  21;  anterior  width  of  nasals,  n;  length  of  upper  tooth  row,  8; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  9. 

This  race,  found  at  a  high  elevation  on  the  mountains,  is  in  some 
respects  intermediate  between  L.  laticinctus  and  L.  I.  rufipes,  both 

*  Perplicatus,  intermingled. 


desert  forms.  In  size  it  is  nearest  to  the  first  named,  and  it  may  have 
a  darker  pelage,  but  as  all  the  five  specimens  procured  are  in  process 
of  change  it  is  difficult  to  say  what  the  color  of  the  perfect  dress 
exactly  is.  It  is  considerably  larger  than  L,  1.  rufipes,  with  a  shorter 
ear,  and  soles  of  the  feet  colored  differently  from  those  of  the  other 
two  forms. 



Vulpes  *arsipus.    Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Daggett,  San  Bernardino  County,  California. 

Genl.  char.:  Similar  to  V.  macrotis,  but  paler  and  smaller,  post- 
orbital  processes  longer;  pterygoid  fossa  narrower. 

Color:  Top  of  head  mixed  pale  gray  and  brownish  fulvous,  more 
brownish  and  darker  than  the  back ;  upper  parts  of  body  pale  grizzled 
gray,  paler  on  the  sides,  where  the  gray  grades  into  buff;  outer  sides 
of  fore  legs  and  thighs,  and  down  outside  of  hind  legs  to  the  toes  pale 
fulvous;  narrow  pectoral  collar  pale  fulvous;  black  patch  on  sides  of 
nose  from  eye,  and  one  on  either  side  of  chin;  brown  post-ocular 
stripe;  under  parts,  inner  side  of  thigh,  and  front  of  hind  legs 
whitish,  tail  above  pale  gray,  tinged  with  buff/  beneath  buffy,  tip 
brownish  black;  ears  externally  pale  cinnamon  and  narrowly  edged 
with  white. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  810;  tail  vertebrae,  310;  hind  foot, 
128;  ear  from  notch,  86.  Skull:  occipito-nasal  length,  103;  Hensel, 
104;  zygomatic  width,  61 ;  interorbital  constriction,  20.5;  across  post- 
orbital  processes,  28;  palatal  length,  56;  length  of  nasals,  39;  length 
of  upper  molar  series,  anterior  edge  of  first  premolar  to  posterior 
edge  of  last  molar,  44;  length  of  mandible,  82.5;  length  of  lower 
molar  series,  47.5. 

This  fox  is  an  inhabitant  of  the  Mohave  Desert,  and  Mr.  Heller 
secured  a  series  at  various  localities  from  Daggett  north  to  Wild  Rose 
Spring  at  the  base  of  the  Panamint  Mountains.  It  is  paler  and  smaller 
than  the  other  described  forms,  and  does  not  seem  to  have  the  red- 
dish summer  pelage  characteristic  of  V.  macrotis  and  V.  hebes  (hebe?) 
of  Calgary,  Alberta,  the  present  form  apparently  retaining  its  pale 
grayish  pelage  throughout  the  year.  Daggett  was  the  most  southern 
point  in  the  Mohave  Desert  where  this  fox  was  seen  by  Mr.  Heller. 

*  dpffdtouff — swift  of  foot. 

DECEMBER,  1903.  MAMMALS  —  ELLIOT.  257 


Ursus  *hylodromus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Alberta,  Northwest  Territory. 

Genl.  char.:  Skull:  forehead  prominent;  elevated  above  face, 
highest  part  of  brain-case  slightly  anterior  to  a  line  from  the  roots  of 
the  zygomata;  frontals  broad  at  post-orbital  processes;  outline  of  nasals 
concave,  the  posterior  portion  curving  upwards  on  to  the  frontals, 
similar  to  the  nasals  of  U.  altifrontalis  and  U.  machetes,  but  in  a  less 
degree  ;  brain-case  bulging  on  sides  to  a  greater  extent  than  that  of 
either  of  the  species  named;  zygomatic  arches  only  moderately 
expanded  ;  narial  opening  very  large,  wide  and  evenly  rounded  infe- 
riorly;  occipital  crest  prominent;  bullae  wider  than  long,  the  tubular 
meatus  much  elongated  and  narrow;  pterygoid  fossa  broad,  narrowest 
anteriorly  at  palatal  arch,  the  processes  rather  short,  broad,  and  their 
tips  turned  inwards;  palate  of  nearly  equal  width  for  the  entire  length 
between  the  tooth  rows,  contracting  after  last  molar  gradually  to  the 
pterygoids;  basioccipital  flat  and  very  broad,  sides  low;  mandible 
very  heavy  ;  upper  outline  of  coronoid  process  curving  downward  pos- 
teriorly and  forming  a  hook. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  312;  occipito-nasal  length,  257; 
Hensel,  270;  zygomatic  width,  173;  width  at  post-orbital  processes, 
96;  width  between  orbits,  69;  greatest  breadth  of  brain-case,  102; 
length  of  nasals,  76;  width  anteriorly,  30;  width  posteriorly,  12; 
greatest  width  of  narial  opening,  50;  height  of  narial  opening,  41; 
width  of  basioccipital,  47;  of  basisphenoid,  36;  length  of  pterygoid 
fossa,  46;  anterior  width,  16;  median  width,  25;  posterior  width  at 
pterygoid  processes,  24;  palatal  length,  153;  width  between  last 
molars,  45  ;  between  canines  at  posterior  edge,  45  ;  between  outer 
edges  at  palatal  arch,  36;  length  of  three  upper  molars,  alveolar  border, 
67;  length  of  mandible,  217;  depth  of  mandible  at  middle  of  second 
molar,  37.5;  height  at  coronoid  process,  88;  width  of  coronoid  process 
above  condyle,  57;  breadth  of  coronoid  process  beneath  hook,  41; 
breadth  at  hook,  40  ;  length  of  three  lower  molars,  alveolar  border,  65. 
No  skin  preserved. 

This  black  bear  is  nearest  allied  to  the  Ursus  altifrontalis  from 
the  Olympic  Mountains,  and  the  skulls  have  a  general  resemblance, 
with  the  characters  of  the  present  form  much  less  accentuated.  It 

*  blo-dpofjiuo  —  wood-ranging. 


has  a  high  and  broad  forehead,  but  nevertheless  it  is  lower  and  nar- 
rower than  in  the  western  species;  the  brain-case,  however,  is  much 
wider  and  more  swollen,  and  the  zygomatic  arches  much  less  spread  as 
the  measurements  show — 173  to  185  ;  the  basioccipital  and  basisphenoid 
are  much  flatter,  and  the  pterygoid  fossa  much  wider,  particularly  at 
the  posterior  end,  with  the  tips  of  the  pterygoid  processes  turning 
inward  instead  of  outward,  as  in  U.  altifrontalis;  the  palate  is  wider 
throughout  its  length,  and  does  not  become  narrow  anteriorly  as  in 
the  species  just  named.  In  comparison  with  the  eastern  black  bear 
(Wisconsin  and  Maine),  the  forehead  is  considerably  more  elevated, 
and  the  brain-case  much  broader;  the  nasals  are  longer  and  elevated 
posteriorly;  the  narial  opening  much  broader  and  flatter  on  the  inferior 
border;  the  pterygoid  fossa  much  wider  and  the  tips  of  the  processes 
turn  inward  and  not  outward.  The  differences  are  similar  to  those 
which  characterized  the  new  form  when  compared  with  the  Pacific 
Coast  black  bears,  placing  U.  hylodromus  between  the  two.  The  east- 
ern black  bear,  however,  has  the  forehead  nearly  on  a  line  with  the 
face,  and  in  this  respect  differs  from  both  of  its  relatives,  and  pos- 
sesses also  a  comparatively  long  and  narrow  brain-case,  in  the  latter 
peculiarity  not  unlike  that  of  U.  altifrontalis,  while  the  new  form  has  the 
brain-case  equally  long,  but  bulging  outward  posterior  to  the  fronto- 
parietal  suture.  The  shape  of  the  coronoid  process  of  the  mandible 
of  the  eastern  black  bear  skull  is  very  different  from  both  of  these 
others,  the  posterior  outline  being  nearly  straight  from  the  condyle  to 
the  tip,  and  entirely  without  the  downward  curve  at  the  tip  so  con- 
spicuous in  the  other  two  species.  The  horizontal  portion  of  the 
mandible  of  U.  hylodromus  is  deeper  and  heavier  than  either  of  the 


Bassariscus  albipes.    Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Near  Vera  Cruz,  State  of  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico. 

Gen/,  char.:  Size  large,  color  dark,  feet  white.  Skull  long, 
narrow,  nasals  pointed  posteriorly  (rounded  in  B.  astutus  and  B.  a. 
raptor],  and  considerably  depressed  in  the  middle,  causing  the  outline 
to  be  concave,  as  the  posterior  portion  ascends  to  the  frontals;  the 
brain-case  is  rather  narrow  for  its  length,  and  does  not  widen  posteri- 
orly equal  to  that  of  B.  astutus;'  the  pterygoid  fossa  is  long  and  rather 
broad,  and  the  processes  of  the  pterygoids  are  thickened  and  heavy, 


very  different  from  the  slender  processes  of  the  species  compared; 
infraorbital  foramina  very  large  and  triangular  in  shape;  palate 
anteriorly  much  broader  for  its  length  than  either  of  the  other  forms; 
post-orbital  processes  short. 

Color:  Upper  parts  very  dark  gray,  the  hairs  being  yellowish  at 
base  and  tipped  with  black,  the  dark  color  predominating  to  such  an 
extent  on  the  dorsal  region  that  this  part  seems  in  certain  lights  all 
black;  sides  of  neck  and  body  slightly  paler;  top  of  head  nearly  black 
like  the  back,  mixed  slightly  with  white  and  buff  hairs;  above  the  eye 
for  the  posterior  three-fourths  is  a  buff  spot  connecting  posteriorly 
with  a  buff  stripe  that  runs  under  the  eye  to  the  nose;  black  band  in 
front  of  eye;  end  of  nose  blackish  brown;  muzzle  black;  upper  lip 
buff;  chin  and  throat  buff;  rest  of  under  parts  yellowish  white;  shoul- 
ders like  back;  upper  parts  of  fore  and  hind  legs  brownish  gray;  fore 
feet  white  or  very  pale  yellowish  white,  this  hue  extending  up  the  out- 
side to  beyond  wrist;  under  side  of  legs  yellowish  white;  hind  feet 
with  terminal  part  and  toes  whitish.  Tail  very  long  with  alternating 
white  and  black  rings,  and  tip  black ;  the  black  rings  much  broader 
than  the  white  and  not  meeting  beneath.  Ears,  basal  half  black, 
remainder  white;  whiskers  very  long,  jet  black. 

Measurements:  Total  length,  870;  tail,  425;  hind  foot,  80.  Skull: 
total  length,  89;  occipito-nasal  length,  80;  Hensel,  80;  zygomatic 
width,  53;  interorbital  constriction,  17;  post-orbital  constriction,  18; 
width  across  post-orbital  processes,  25.5;  greatest  width  of  brain- 
case,  36;  length  of  nasals,  20.5;  mastoid  width,  36;  length  of  ptery- 
goid  fossa,  18;  palatal  length,  37.5;  width  of  palate  between  last 
molars,  12;  between  canines,  10.5;  length  of  upper  tooth  row  from 
anterior  edge  of  canine,  alveolar  border,  34;  length  of  canine,  n; 
length  of  mandible,  55;  height  at  coronoid  process,  23;  at  angle,  9; 
length  of  lower  tooth  row,  molar  series  alveolar  border,  27;  from 
anterior  edge  of  canine,  34. 

This  is  a  large  form  of  Bassariscus,  with  a  dark,  almost  black, 
pelage  in  certain  lights  on  the  upper  parts,  and  with  a  much  longer  tail 
than  any  other  described  species,  and  with  conspicuously  white  feet 
tinged  with  yellow.  In  general  appearance  it  does  not  seem  to  re- 
semble very  closely  any  of  the  known  raccoon  foxes.  A  single  specimen 
was  obtained  by  Mr.  Buxton  near  Vera  Cruz,  Mexico. 



Gulo  *luteus.     Sp.  nov. 

Type  locality:  Mount  Whitney. 

Geogr.  distr.:  Mount  Whitney  to  Yukatat  Bay(?),   Alaska. 

Genl.  char. :  General  color  of  hind  part  of  head,  sides,  and  base 
of  tail,  buff  color. 

Color:  Nose,  lips,  cheeks  back  to  and  including  eyes,  jet  black; 
top  of  head  and  back  of  eyes  pale  gray;  nape  and  space  between 
shoulders  chestnut;  lower  part  of  back  and  rump  seal  brown  in  the 
center,  grading  to  chestnut  on  the  edges ;  band  across  middle  of  back 
encircling  the  dark  patch,  and  sides  buff  color;  under  parts  blackish 
chestnut  with  small  white  spots  on  throat;  legs  and  feet  black;  tail, 
basal  half  buff,  remainder  black ;  ears  chestnut,  with  broad  buff  edging. 

Measurements:  Immature.  Total  length,  850;  tail  vertebrae,  205; 
hind  foot,  165;  ear,  53. 

This  is  a  pale  species  of  wolverine,  strikingly  different  from  the 
well-known  animal  that  up  to  this  time  has  represented  the  genus 
Gulo.  The  type  specimen  is  an  immature  male,  but  the  trappers  and 
ranchmen  told  Mr.  Heller  that  although  the  creature  was  rare,  yet 
occasionally  one  was  killed,  and  the  old  ones  were  exactly  like  the 
present  specimen.  This  statement  is  probably  correct,  for  the  young 
of  Gulo  luscus  resemble  their  parents  in  coloration.  When  I  was  last 
in  Alaska  with  the  Harriman  expedition  I  obtained  at  Yukatat  Bay  a 
skin  of  a  pale-colored  adult  wolverine,  which  I  was  inclined  to  regard 
as  a  freak  specimen. 

The  exact  locality  of  its  capture  was  not  known,  and  the  trader 
from  whom  it  was  bought  could  not  say  whether  the  specimen  was 
taken  in  the  vicinity  of  Yukatat  bay  or  brought  from  a  distance.  I 
brought  it  back  and  put  it  in  the  collection  with  other  wolverine  skins. 
On  comparing  the  Mount  Whitney  specimen  with  this  one  from  Alaska, 
it  was  at  once  seen  they  were  exactly  alike  in  their  coloring,  and  in  the 
distribution  of  the  hues ;  the  buff  base  of  the  tail  and  the  sides  and  the  jet 
black  muzzle  and  fore  part  of  head  being  especially  conspicuous.  The 
Yukatat' example  is  fully  adult  and  about  the  size  of  an  ordinary  Gulo 
luscus,  and  the  exact  resemblance  of  these  two  specimens  to  each 
other  would  seem  to  confirm  the  statement  made  by  the  residents  near 
Mount  Whitney  that  the  old  and  young  wolverines  in  their  locality  do 
not  differ  in  appearance.  A  second  specimen  of  wolverine  is  inter- 

*  Luteus — buff. 


esting  on  account  of  the  wide  distribution  of  the  species  so  long  known, 
and  it  is  hoped  that  more  examples  and  an  understanding  of  its  distri- 
bution may  ere  long  be  obtained.  Mount  Whitney  I  believe  is  the 
most  southern  locality  in  which  a  wolverine  has  been  procured.  The 
skull  of  the  type  was  badly  broken,  the  animal  having  been  killed  by 
a  blow  on  the  head. 

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